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D4L Foundation Module

Instructional Design for Online Learning: Techniques and Pedagogy

Learning Outcomes and Motivating Learners Introduction

5 Step 4. Learning Outcomes and Motivating Learners

Step 4. Learning Outcomes and Motivating Learners Introduction

The recording below addresses Step 4 in the 7-Steps to Effective Online Instruction.

Audio Transcript: PDF   MS Word

Key Points for Step 4

  • Developing learning outcomes are based on the results of your instructional analysis (Step 3).
  • Learning outcomes must be specific and measurable.
  • When creating learning outcomes, think about how you will assess them.
  • Learning outcomes and assessment must be aligned.
  • When thinking about learning outcomes, it is sometimes helpful to consider Bloom's Revised Taxonomy and Church's adaption entitled Bloom's Digital Taxonomy.  The image link under the lecture video links below will take you to Andrew Church's 2009 paper which discusses this in depth.

Lecture Video for Step 4. What are Learning Outcomes?  aka learning outcomes, performance objectives, and other similar concepts. Extracting learning objectives from the needs analysis, instructional goals, and instructional analysis. Defining learning objectives so that learners will understand what the outcomes will be, establish criteria for assessment of success, and communicate to other vested parties (administrators, co-teachers, future teachers, etc.) what will need to be taught so these objectives can be met (learned). How do learning objectives relate to testing and assessment (see Step 5.)? - Transcript (pdf)and 

if the video does not appear embedded above this text, you can visit it directly at

The image link below will take you the author's paper for more information on Bloom's Digital Taxonomy. The paper should open up in a new window for you.

This is an image link of Bloom's Digital Taxonomy as adapted by Andrew Church. It will take you to a paper written by Church.

This project is administered by the South Central Regional Library Council with funding from the Institue for Museum and Library Services.