"The American Colonization Society (ACS; in full, "The Society for the Colonization of Free People of Color of America"), ...was the primary vehicle to support the return of free African Americans to what was considered greater freedom in Africa."
Courtesy of the Cornell University Law Library.
In the early to mid- 19th Century, US criminal justice was undergoing massive reform. The state prisons which had emerged out of earlier reform efforts were becoming increasingly crowded, diseased, and dangerous. Consequently, the “Auburn System” was developed in New York at Auburn State Prison and Sing Sing Correctional Facility. The reformers believed the penitentiary could serve as a model for family and education, so sought a system that was more rehabilitative than harshly punitive.
The Rudin’s collection on the history of slavery in America is comprised of more than 500 documents, letters, and other items on the history of the sale, hire, purchase and debt payment of slaves in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century America. With his collection, Mr. Rudin sought to demonstrate how slavery was intertwined in the common economic and social practices of everyday American life, and with the goal that this terrible aspect of American history will be more fully revealed and understood.
Through estate appraisals, wills, manumissions, taxation and insurance records, slave auction advertisements, correspondence, engravings, and other records, the collection offers important insights into the institution of slavery in America from the eighteenth century through the Civil War.